In this post, a bitcoin node is setup with a raspberry pi and Ubuntu OS.
- Raspberry Pi with 4Gb or more
- External hardrive
- SD card reader
Update Feb 2022: Best to Use a 1TB Harddrive as the blockchain has grown in size
Installing Ubuntu Server
Use these instructions to Install ubuntu server for raspberry pi
Ubuntu Server 20.04.1 LTS
Copy your ssh public key to authorized keys over of the raspberry pi with:
Now you can edit
sudo vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config of the raspberry pi and set:
PasswordAuthentication no PermitRootLogin no UsePAM no X11Forwarding no
sudo systemctl reload ssh
You can also use this more pedantic openSSH hardening guide
Then you want to enable
ufw Uncomplicated firewall – an interface to
Check the current
ufw status with:
sudo ufw status
Allow ssh and enable:
sudo ufw allow OpenSSH sudo ufw enable
I think by default incoming traffic not in the allowed will be blocked
Install Bitcoin Core
Go to https://bitcoin.org/bin and download the
arm version you need:
Importantly you want
I thought this was the one
bitcoin-0.21.0-arm-linux-gnueabihf.tar.gzbut it is not. Perhaps it is for 32 bit CPU architecture – I’m not sure
Ensure you have your
500Gb 1TB external storage plugged in and use this tutorial to mount the partition permanently
Download bitcoin core, verify and unpack:
cd /opt sudo wget https://bitcoincore.org/bin/bitcoin-core-0.21.0/bitcoin-0.21.0-aarch64-linux-gnu.tar.gz sha256-sum bitcoin-0.21.0-aarch64-linux-gnu.tar.gz # Ensure it matches the given signatures on bitcoin.org tar xzf bitcoin-0.21.0-aarch64-linux-gnu.tar.gz sudo install -m 0755 -o root -g root -t /usr/local/bin/ bitcoin-0.21.0/bin/*
bitcoin-cli should be in your path.
Make a directory on your
500GB 1TB HD:
cd /mnt/my-hd mkdir bitcoin
bitcoind specifying the datadir:
bitcoind -daemon -datadir=/mnt/my-hd/bitcoin
This should also create a directory in
~/.bitcoin/bitcoin.conf specifying that location.
Now you have to wait for the entire blockchain – journal of transaction from the epoch of bitcoin to download- this takes a day or a week
Ensure you have downloaded the full blockchain by checking the
blockcount on bitinfo, then checking what your node block count is:
bitcoin-cli getblockcount 659835
Open up your node to the Internet
Inbound connections need to be enabled for port
8333 from the public internet.
So enable that with the firewall
sudo ufw allow 8333
Ensure all is good:
sudo ufw status Status: active To Action From -- ------ ---- OpenSSH ALLOW Anywhere 8333 ALLOW Anywhere OpenSSH (v6) ALLOW Anywhere (v6) 8333 (v6) ALLOW Anywhere (v6)
Then you need to do the following things:
- Giving your computer a static (unchanging) internal IP address by configuring the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) on your router.
- Forwarding inbound connections from the Internet through your router to your computer where Bitcoin Core can process them
The above tasks can be done in your router with DHCP address reservation and using NAT (Network Address Translation) port forwarding
You can test connectivity with:
Ensure there are inbound connections
or by going to bitnodes
Ensure bitcoind starts at startup – for power failure events
The crontab entry suggested by the full node guide does not work for me.
@reboot bitcoind -daemon
Rather create a file:
sudo touch /etc/systemd/system/bitcoind.service
[Unit] Description=bitcoin After=network.target [Service] Type=simple User=ubuntu Group=ubuntu Environment=BITCOIN_PID=/home/ubuntu/bitcoin/bitcoin.pid Environment=BITCOIN_HOME=/home/ubuntu/bitcoin/.bitcoin ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/bitcoind ExecStop=/bin/kill -15 $MAINPID [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target
Then enable and start:
sudo systemctl daemon-reload sudo systemctl enable bitcoind sudo systemctl start bitcoind
Update April 2021
The problem is I was using a lot of data.
Which was okay but I think my ISP starts capping (it claims not to though).
2000GB in a month, at about 80GB a day is a problem.
I wasn’t even at home during a lot of that time.
So the best thing to do is limit the usage in your
bitcoin.conf as suggested by this reddit post.
That limits the number of connected peers and sets the max upload per day at 50MB – thereafter no historical blocks will be sent over the network. I will play my part but not at the expenses of productivity on my network.
There is also a good article on reducing traffic .